Training, experience and skill characterize a good surgeon. A good doctor must be empathetic and listen. He or she should have a sound scientific training and possess extensive and up-to-date knowledge. A trusted surgeon will be happy to provide information about his or her education and training. Read and compare the resumes of the surgeons you trust. The award of a degree from a reputable state university is subject to special supervision. The issuance of certificates and awards from the medical association or recognized professional societies are also a sign of quality. Only a specialist in plastic and aesthetic surgery has a six-year residency with a focus on cosmetic surgery. When looking for a good plastic surgeon, evaluation portals can serve as a guide. Unlike state institutions or large German societies in the field, evaluation portals reflect the experience of individual patients. With a sufficient number of verified reviews, they may reflect an average of patient opinion. However, do not rely solely on the evaluation of such a portal.
CenterPlast doctors are highly qualified and have received several awards. We are proud of the feedback we receive from our patients on Jameda, Google, Estheticon, Instagram and more. Convince yourself and do not leave your health and appearance to chance.
How to determine the volume of the breast?
In everyday life, the size of a breast is measured in cup sizes. This size specification has the advantage of being easy to understand and widely used. However, the size specification for the bust as a clothing size is quite inaccurate. Alternatively, the size of the breasts can be determined by the circumference of the individual breast. The measuring tape is placed above the nipple from the outer to the inner envelope point. This value is also known as the breast hemicircumference (HC). A circumference of 20cm corresponds to a bra cup size B, a circumference of 21.5cm HC to a “C cup”, a circumference of 23.5cm to a “D cup” and a circumference of 25cm to an “E cup”. Other scientific measurement methods are volume measurement by water displacement or volume determination with 3D scans.
Cup size calculator: determine cup size for free
How is the cup size determined?
The cup size or cup size is a clothing size of the breast volume. How exactly it is determined is one of the frequent questions asked by women who are dissatisfied with the size of their breasts.
The cup size is the difference between the bust measurement and the underbust measurement. The lower chest circumference corresponds to the chest circumference immediately below the breasts. The chest circumference, on the other hand, is measured at the widest part of the chest.
Both values form standard sizes according to the “International Bra Size Conventions”. Bra cups are categories that do not fit every breast shape and size. Like dress sizes, bra sizes vary from country to country and from manufacturer to manufacturer. Other factors such as the bra cup (full cup, half cup bra), the fabric (stretch bra) and the padding determine the fit of a bra. The menstrual cycle and changes in body weight also affect cup size. The volume of each breast also changes by an average of 76 ml during the menstrual cycle . When you inhale, the chest rises and the chest circumference increases. Breathing results in measurement differences in underbust circumference averaging 4.8 centimetres .
Since the breast volume is calculated from the breast circumference and the underbust circumference, a change in the underbust circumference affects the cup size. The total volume of a B cup corresponds to approx. 330ml with an underbust circumference of 75cm, respectively 400ml with 80cm and 480ml with 85cm. The volume of a C cup is 360ml for an underbust measurement of 75cm, 460ml for 80cm, 500ml for 85cm and 550ml for 90cm. The volume of the D cup is 480ml for an underbust circumference of 75cm, respectively 590ml for 80cm, 670ml for 85cm and 850ml for 90cm . The volume of a cup size 80B is very similar to the volume of a cup size 75C.
At CenterPlast, all these factors are taken into account during measurement. Therefore, you can count on very precise planning regarding the desired change in your breasts. In the following tables you will find an overview of the different sizes. Of course, CenterPlast performs the exact measurement in the course of an examination prior to surgery, so that you are on the safe side.
|INT & EU
|FR, ES & BE
|US & UK
|AU & NZ
|JP & KR
|Bust measurement minus underbust measurement (cm)
|INT & EU
|FR, ES & BE
|AU & NZ
|JP & KR
|B or C
|B or C
|B or C
|F/DDD or G/DDD
|E or F
|F or G
Die Körbchengröße wird durch das Verhältnis Brustumfang zu Unterbrustumfang bestimmt. Dabei ist es entscheidend den Brustumfang reproduzierbar und unabhängig von äußeren Einflussgrößen zu messen. Daher wird der Brustumfang im stehen mit entkleideten Oberkörper und herabhängenden Armen auf Höhe der Brustwarzen gemessen.
What can I expect during a consultation for breast surgery?
First of all, you have the possibility to get a consultation at CenterPlast either with an experienced specialist or with a specialist in plastic and aesthetic surgery. The choice of doctor is up to you. Allow about an hour for a detailed consultation. Within the scope of the consultation, we first address your wishes for change. What cup size do you want? How satisfied are you with the shape of your breasts? Is your décolleté too generous or do you wish for more fullness?
In order to be able to recognise possible risks in good time and to prevent them better, you will be asked questions about preventive medical check-ups, pregnancy, family planning, previous illnesses and allergies, occupation, medication and general risks of treatment. It is important to let us know if you smoke or take supplements, as these factors can have a big impact on your breast surgery.
Next, your breast will be measured accurately. For aesthetic reasons, even slight differences in the sides of the breast are noted. Other characteristics that are important for planning, such as skin elasticity, any spinal curvature or chest deformities, are examined.
All patients are photographed for accurate treatment planning. Based on this thorough examination and further information, you will be shown various alternatives and all the associated risks and limitations. During the detailed consultation, all your questions will be answered by the plastic surgery specialist. You will receive all the information you need to decide which treatment is right for you. It is very important to discuss your expectations openly with your cosmetic surgeon. A good information of the patient and an optimal exchange with the surgeon lead to a satisfying result.
The surgeon will discuss all the details of the procedure as well as the detailed procedure with you. The duration of the operation, the type of anaesthesia used (general anaesthesia, twilight sleep, etc.), the facility in which the breast enlargement will take place, the follow-up cost insurance as well as the preparatory measures for the breast enlargement and the behavioural measures after the breast enlargement are also discussed. The price of the aesthetic plastic surgery is explained to you in a transparent and comprehensible manner.
If you are unsure or do not feel fully informed, do not hesitate to ask your treating physician questions. At the end of the consultation, we are also happy to offer you a second consultation. It is not uncommon for patients to have questions afterwards. It is very important to us that all your questions have been answered before the day of the operation.
Breast surgery without general anesthesia
During the procedure, you will only be given as much anesthetic and painkillers as necessary so that you do not feel any pain and, if you wish, you can sleep in a relaxed manner. Due to a specific anaesthesia of the intercostal nerves, the breasts are painless and numb during and for several hours after the procedure. This saves you the high dosage of anaesthetic and the associated side effects that are to be expected with a general anaesthetic. The procedure is also called “fast recovery surgery” in the USA, because patients recover much faster than after a general anaesthetic. The advantages of “fast recovery surgery” are:
- The procedure is completely painless.
- The risk of nausea is much lower because the sleeping pill is dosed lower.
- You will be fit again in no time.
- You can go home the same day.
- The anesthetic lasts an average of 12 hours, so you will need less pain medication even after surgery.
- The risks of this procedure are lower because, unlike general anesthesia, the respiratory muscle does not shut down.
- You will be spared a sore throat and a hoarse voice, as you will not have to be artificially ventilated.
- For many patients it is reassuring to know that you are able to talk to your cosmetic plastic surgery expert or anaesthetist at any time.
9 tips on how to best prepare for breast surgery?
- Make sure you choose the right and experienced specialist, clinic / practice. Under “Which doctor for breast surgery?” we have compiled advice to help you find a good surgeon and therefore the right doctor.
- All your questions about possible complications and alternative medical treatments should be answered in advance.
- Cigarette smoking significantly increases the risk of inflammation, wound healing disorders and thrombosis. Every day you give up tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes before or after surgery makes breast surgery safer.
- The estrogens contained in the contraceptive pill increase the risk of thrombosis, especially in conjunction with nicotine consumption. We therefore recommend that you use other methods of contraception before undergoing surgery.
- Many over-the-counter medications such as aspirin or ibuprofen, but also vitamins (A, E) and dietary supplements (omega-3 fatty acids, St. John’s wort, etc.) thin the blood and thus increase the risk of bruising. Therefore, be sure to avoid taking these preparations 2 weeks before surgery.
- Plan generously and give yourself some rest after surgery, both professionally and personally. Responsible aftercare ensures the desired, optimal result.
- Avoid air travel or business trips for the first four weeks. The rigors of air travel and the stress of a new environment can have an adverse effect on wound healing.
- Operational risks are unavoidable, despite prudent and forward planning. Since health insurance does not cover the costs of complications, we recommend that you take out follow-up cost insurance.
- Many different microorganisms live on our skin. To reduce the risk of inflammation, we recommend that you reduce skin germs as much as possible. On the day of the procedure, shower with a disinfectant soap (for example HiBiScrub® Plus, Octenisan® Wash Lotion, Prontoderm® Shower Gel).
What can I expect on the day of my breast surgery?
To ensure that you are optimally prepared, we will already discuss the exact daily schedule with you at the consultation appointment. Your surgeon will see you on the day of your operation. You may store your clothes in a lockable wardrobe. You will be given a surgical gown and compression stockings, which effectively reduce the risk of thrombosis.
The surgeon will then examine your upper body and draw the exact surgical plan on your breasts with a special skin marker. Shortly afterwards, the anaesthetist will greet you. After you are given a preventative antibiotic, you will be escorted to the operating room. There you will lie down on a specially padded operating table. For your comfort, you will be provided with a warming blanket filled with warm filtered air.
For your utmost safety, the entire surgical team works through a checklist, point by point, with all the details of the upcoming operation. While you are already asleep, the skin is thoroughly disinfected with an alcohol solution. Your surgeon will numb the intercostal nerves so that you do not feel any pain during and for at least six hours after the operation. Your well-being is continuously monitored by the anaesthetist. The dosage of the medication is always adjusted to your individual needs.
In order to avoid any feeling of nausea after the operation, the anaesthetist will give you an appropriate medication as a preventive measure. After dressing the wound, the surgical team will help you put on the bra ordered for you. If you wish, your surgeon will be happy to give information to a close person immediately after the operation. Already one hour after the operation most patients feel very fit. However, we would like to observe you for two to four hours after surgery.
As you will receive a prescription for pain medication and thrombosis injections before the operation, you will not have to worry about anything after the operation. Likewise, appointments for check-ups are made in advance with the surgery date, on site or in an individual consultation via video consultation.
Before you leave the practice, the surgeon will discuss all the recommendations with you and, in the case of breast augmentation with silicone gel implants, will give you the relevant identification cards, because even modern implants do not have a lifetime guarantee, but must be changed after a certain period of time. Of course, you will receive a doctor’s letter in which all instructions as well as the dates for follow-up care are listed. The surgeon is always available for you personally. In the evening, the surgeon will contact you by telephone to make sure that you are doing well. The first check-up usually takes place on the following day.
Is breast surgery possible for minors?
Like any medical treatment, breast surgery requires a thorough risk-benefit assessment. The growth of the breasts begins between the 9. and 10 years of age . On average, breast growth is completed between the ages of 13 and 15 . However, in certain physical conditions such as severe obesity, breast growth does not come to a conclusion until around the age of 18. There are numerous studies demonstrating improvement in physical and psychological distress following breast reduction in adolescents and young women . The risk of a too early operation is that the breast is still in the growth phase and therefore the final breast shape and size cannot be estimated exactly. This factor must therefore be taken into account, despite medical reasons (medical indication).
There is also a risk that very young patients may not understand the implications of the procedure. Legal experts assume that children under the age of 14 are not capable of giving consent. According to the law, young people up to the age of 18 have only limited legal capacity. The Federal Court of Justice requires that underage female patients have the “mental and moral maturity” to understand the chances of success but also the risks. The assessment of maturity requires the opinion of a doctor of child and adolescent psychiatry. We usually recommend postponing breast surgery until the age of 15. We want to provide our patients with the best possible information so that they can make independent and informed decisions about their health.
How does pregnancy change the breast?
Despite many idealized romantic notions of pregnancy, not every woman is happy with the changes in her body. During pregnancy, the nipples as well as the atria become darker and significantly larger . Breast volume increases: by about 40ml in the first three months, 100ml in the second trimester and 140ml in the third trimester . After weaning, the glandular tissue regresses. The breasts become smaller and the shape firmness of the breasts decreases. With good skin tone, the skin shrinks and adapts to the new breast volume.
When can breast surgery be performed after pregnancy?
For the good of the mother and the child, infants should ideally be breastfed for 6 months. No change in the shape or size of the breasts is expected six months after weaning. Many mothers hit a low mood in the months following pregnancy. If the depression arises from a feeling of sadness or inner emptiness, surgery should be refrained from. For some women, a noticeable change in the breast or abdomen can result in depression. The positive impact of cosmetic surgery on the psychological suffering of these patients has been well documented in numerous studies .
What must be considered after breast surgery?
- When making an appointment for the operation, we also offer you immediately subsequent examination appointments. The surgeon will check that you are comfortable and that the wound is healing properly.
- No water should get to the wounds for the first two days after the surgery date. From the third day onwards, you can shower as usual before the wound check at CenterPlast Saarbrücken.
- A sleeping position with the upper body slightly elevated promotes decongestion and thus supports wound healing. Therefore, place a wedge under the mattress for the first five to ten days.
- During the first six weeks you should sleep on your back.
- A fitted special bra should be worn day and night for a period of six weeks.
- The healing process is accompanied by an increased basal metabolic rate of oxygen and nutrients. Since during sports activities the trained muscles consume more oxygen and nutrients, you should take a break from training.
- Avoid bending over, lifting heavy weights, swimming, saunas, sexual intercourse and sports activities for four weeks after breast surgery. Even with a sports bra, the sport is not recommended. If swelling is still present, prolonged rest may be advisable.
- Smoking tobacco cigarettes or e-cigarettes increases the risk of wound healing disorders, inflammation and thrombosis. It is therefore essential that you stop smoking during the first six weeks after breast surgery.
- For an optimal healing process, massage the scar several times a day for a few minutes from the third postoperative week. Use an oily cream, such as Bepanthen® ointment or Linola® fat. Pay attention to circular movements as well as lengthways and crossways to the scar. These measures help to create an inconspicuous scar afterwards.
Which bra after breast surgery?
Wearing a special bra after breast surgery is important for a perfect and natural result. This compression bra should be worn day and night for a period of 6 weeks. The following features should be considered when choosing a bra:
- When choosing a size, make sure that the cups and the underbust band fit perfectly. The bra should support the breasts without squeezing. The breasts should be gently supported so as not to interfere with healing.
- The bras should be underwired and snug. A bra underwire can cause pressure points on the skin and affect the flow of blood and lymph.
- Pre-shaped cups allow for even support of the entire breast tissue.
- The fabric in the chest area should be smooth and seamless. Extensive stitching can leave pressure marks on the skin and impair the skin’s circulation.
- Adjustable bra straps and an adjustable clasp are important because breast swelling changes, especially during the first six weeks.
- The bra should be as breathable as possible. Good air circulation and efficient heat exchange are important for undisturbed wound healing.
- For hygienic reasons, the bra should be washed regularly. The elastic synthetic fibres do not tolerate high washing temperatures and bleaching agents. Therefore, also think about a change supply and choose skin-colored or black bras.
- After breast augmentation with silicone implants, the cups should lie close to the skin with elastic fibres and provide support in any position. A higher cleavage is important in order to give the high-quality implants a better hold.
- After breast augmentation with autologous fat, a breast lift or breast reduction, pre-shaped cups are preferable. The breasts should be gently supported from all sides so that they float almost weightlessly. The undisturbed microcirculation of the skin and the lymphatic drainage are particularly important after autologous fat treatment so that the transplanted cells are sufficiently supplied with oxygen and nutrients.
- Due to a temporary reduction in sensation, pressure points can go unnoticed and lead to skin damage. In the first few days, keep checking your skin for pressure points and replace the bra early if necessary.
Flat nipples after breast surgery
The skin of the areola is thinner and less elastic than the skin of the breast. If the skin on the breast is strongly stretched, the tension is also transferred to the areola and the nipple. In the case of a breast enlargement with silicone gel implants and a simultaneous tightening of the breast around the areola (so-called periareolar tightening), the tension is temporarily particularly high. Therefore, in the following months, you may develop a wide areola or a flat nipple. To remove the tension from the areola, we use a special suturing technique and thread in these cases.
After breast augmentation with autologous fat or with silicone implants as well as after breast reduction or lifting, the height of the nipple does not usually change. The risk of a flat nipple is significantly reduced if breast augmentation with implants is performed first, followed by breast lift after a few months. The division into two surgical procedures is associated with less tension. A gradual approach is particularly recommended for patients with an increased risk of wound healing disorders, such as those who have smoked cigarettes for many years. The nipples can be straightened with the use of a spacer. We use these surgical techniques with good success in the case of inverted nipples. In selected cases, the technique can be combined with a breast lift.
Before and after pictures of breast surgeries
In the run-up to breast surgery, patients expect to be able to view before-and-after pictures or before-and-after photos. Naturally, women want a particularly trustworthy expert in plastic and aesthetic surgery who will give them detailed and individual advice. Through after photos, they can get an idea of the result and be completely satisfied overall. Such photos for the purpose of a before and after comparison can be viewed during an appointment for a personal consultation. It goes without saying that these were recorded in compliance with data protection regulations. In addition, the patient is put on a trial bra. This makes it possible to visualize the target size on your own body. For further information, please consult our page on the subject of before and after pictures in the menu category “About us”.
Why a breast surgery in Saarbrücken?
Brazil has been a pioneer in aesthetic surgery for decades and is considered the cradle of cosmetic surgery. The techniques of breast surgery were significantly influenced by Brazilian plastic surgeons such as: Ivo Pitanguy, Liacyr Ribeiro, João Carlos Sampaio Góes.
Dr. Santos Stahl has already operated independently on many hundreds of breast augmentations during her specialist training in Brazil with first-class surgeons. Later, Dr. Santos Stahl acquired the German as well as the European specialist qualification. Dr. Santos Stahl has also expanded her spectrum and knowledge with the most influential plastic surgeons in Dallas, Oakland and Salt Lake City – thanks to a scholarship from the largest professional association of plastic surgeons in Germany (VDÄPC).
In 2015, Dr. Stahl became a senior physician and permanent deputy of the medical director at the University Hospital of Tübingen. From 2016 to 2018, he moved to Lüdenscheid as clinic director. Over the years, the experienced specialist PD Dr. Stahl has continued to refine his microsurgical techniques, so that today he enjoys a reputation among experts as a particularly gentle and precise surgeon. Various fellowships have taken him to outstanding plastic surgeons in Brazil, New York, Atlanta and Salt Lake City.
Medical decisions and recommendations must be made on the basis of proven effectiveness. In order to assess the validity of scientific evidence, a physician’s scientific skills are important. For this purpose, an additional qualification as an investigator and experience in the conduct of clinical trials is an advantage. These conditions apply to Fr. Dr. Santos Stahl and PD Dr. Stahl.
Field report of a breast operation at CenterPlast Saarbrücken
Patient satisfaction with breast shape and size is systematically and continuously recorded by us. For this purpose we are collecting voluntary patient votes. Nevertheless, we also systematically examine a possible influence of the intervention on perceived self-confidence and attractiveness. In fact, many patients are willing to share their experience with other sufferers. This can help you make the right decision. We can put you in touch with these patients during a consultation if you wish.
We also encourage our patients to rate us on portals like Jameda and Google. Ratings provide an average overall picture of patient satisfaction.
Visit our testimonials page in the “About Us” menu category now to find relevant ratings and reviews available online.
Breast surgery abroad
More and more often, patients are tempted to reduce the costs of cosmetic surgery, such as breast augmentation, by undergoing treatment abroad and thus save money. Foreign facilities target unsuspecting patients on social media with low prices. The establishments advertise with exaggerated promises and discounts that are punishable under German law. The clarification, which according to German law must be carried out by a specialist, is carried out by a semi-skilled assistant via video consultation. It is not uncommon for potential complications to be inadequately discussed. The surgeons’ qualifications and experience are usually not mentioned on the websites. Facilities where there have been clustered complications or even deaths can be renamed to cover tracks .
It is not uncommon for complications to arise after returning from abroad, making the trip costly for the patient. The most common complications of patients returning from abroad are inflammation, wound healing problems, a bruise and an unsatisfactory result. The surgeon in charge can then no longer be reached. Important information about the original treatment (operation report, discharge letter, implant card) can no longer be obtained. The advertised reduced breast surgery costs are therefore associated with a high risk. Many patients do not deal with these not inconsiderable difficulties and consequential costs of breast augmentation until it is already too late.
Therefore, ask yourself the following questions before undergoing cosmetic surgery abroad:
- Which surgeon am I actually going to be operated on by?
- Does the surgeon speak my native language?
- Is the surgeon’s training and experience comparable to that of European specialists in plastic and aesthetic surgery?
- What are the hygiene standards in the clinic?
- What laws apply abroad (patients’ rights and data protection)?
- In the event of complications, who will cover all the costs or repatriation?
Which breast surgery does the health insurance pay for?
Three conditions must be met for the costs of breast surgery to be covered by health insurance:
- The shape or size of the female breast must have “disease value”.
- There must be a medical necessity for the operation.
- The treatment method must be recognised by the Federal Joint Committee.
These requirements were laid down in fundamental decisions of the Federal Social Court. Essentially, the judges are of the opinion that small breasts or unsightly breasts do not constitute a disease. Therefore, it can generally be assumed that health insurance companies do not contribute to the costs of breast augmentation surgery or a breast lift of a sagging breast. It is irrelevant whether private or statutory health insurance is in place. Treatment with autologous fat is not recognised by the Federal Joint Committee and is therefore generally not paid for. Many patients with larger than average breasts complain of back or neck pain. The scientific evidence of a causal relationship between back pain and larger than average breasts is very complex and still insufficient. In individual cases, proof of such a connection must be provided by an orthopedist or trauma surgeon. It is unlikely that the costs of a breast reduction will be covered. In rare cases, a failure by the health insurance company to meet the deadline will result in the costs being covered. In these cases, the treatment must not exceed what is medically absolutely necessary.
Can I pay for breast surgery in installments?
We are happy to help you fulfill your desire for cosmetic surgery. In order to be able to devote ourselves entirely to the treatment of our patients, we will provide you with the names of financial service providers who specialise in the financing of cosmetic surgery. The settlement via a financial service provider is very discreet. Therefore, even if the house bank offers favorable conditions, many choose specialized credit institutions. Above a certain amount, banks check the scope of the applicant’s financial capabilities. Copies of pay slips are usually required for this purpose. Intermediaries that specialize in providing loans for cosmetic surgery include medkred, medipay, and credit4beauty.
What are the costs for breast surgery?
The costs for a breast augmentation are determined during the personal consultation. If you want to get an idea of the price range in advance, please visit our cost page.
Preparation and aftercare for breast augmentation with implants?
The instructions listed below should be followed after breast augmentation with silicone implants. General recommendations on how to behave before and after breast surgery, as well as all the information on the different types (teardrop-shaped, i.e. anatomical implants, or round implants, etc.) can be found on the Breast Surgery – FAQ page.
- During the 6 weeks after breast augmentation with implants, always sleep on your back only, so that the implants do not slip in any way.
- Wear the special bras to ensure the result. This keeps the implant in place.
- Powerful, fast and sweeping shoulder movements pose a risk: Avoid them so as not to risk slipping or twisting silicone breast implants. Pectoral training is to be suspended for 6 weeks.
What do you need to keep in mind after breast augmentation with autologous fat?
In general, the same precautions apply. For specific information you can visit the corresponding subpage: Breast augmentation with autologous fat.
Preparation for hybrid breast augmentation
The same precautions apply as for the above follow-up recommendations. In any case, the treating surgeon will go over all the details with you in consultation. Since both your own fat and implants are used in hybrid breast augmentation, please pay attention to the aftercare recommendations for both types of surgery. The special bra should be worn day and night for six weeks.
Behavioural recommendations before and after a breast lift
External pressure on the tissue impairs wound healing. Therefore, sleep on your back or side for the first six weeks after a breast lift. A special support bra promotes the healing process by removing tension from the wound. Please note the general recommendations for behaviour after breast surgery on the page Breast Surgery – FAQ.
Important tips for the time before and after breast reduction
For optimal healing, you should also sleep on your back or on your side during the first six weeks of this operation. The special support bra takes the tension away from the wound and thus promotes rapid wound healing. This way you promote inconspicuous scarring. You can find detailed information about the operation on the page Breast reduction.
“We provide you with extensive expert knowledge so that we can work with you to select the best possible treatment path.”
Dr. med. Stéphane steel is the former director of the Clinic for Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery / Hand Surgery at the Lüdenscheid Clinic. Dr. Stahl studied medicine at the Universities of Freiburg and Berlin. In 2011 he passed the European and 2012 the German specialist examination for plastic and aesthetic surgery. Further specialist qualifications and additional qualifications followed (including quality management, medical didactics, physical therapy, emergency medicine, laser protection officers, hand surgery) as well as prizes and awards. In 2015 he completed his habilitation in plastic and aesthetic surgery in Tübingen. He is an experienced microsurgeon, a sought-after expert and a regular speaker at specialist congresses. After a multi-stage selection process, Stéphane Stahl became a member of the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS), one of the world’s largest and most influential specialist societies for aesthetic surgery. His authorship includes numerous articles in respected peer review journals and standard surgical textbooks.