Baker – Classification of capsular fibrosis

The formation of scar tissue around breast implants is a natural reaction of the immune system to a foreign body. The scar tissue is called capsular fibrosis (capsular contracture).

The plastic surgeon James Baker from Orlando described four degrees of capsular fibrosis in 1975 (James L. Baker, Jr.: 1975 Symposium on Aesthetic Surgery of the Breast. Arizona). The appearance of the breast, a palpable hardening of the breast and pain are decisive for differentiating the severity.


Baker’s classification is used worldwide. In stage I, the breast looks and feels normal. In stage II, the breast looks normal but feels somewhat firm. In stage III it feels firm and begins to take on a spherical shape. In stage IV, the breast is disfigured and painful. The transitions between the stages are fluid.

The palpation examination depends on the experience of the examiner.

The word attractive comes from the Latin and means appealing. Certain body features have a special attraction and are instinctively perceived as beautiful.

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